谷禾健康 / 待分类 / 益生菌的简单入门指南

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拥有健康的肠道菌群可以带来许多健康益处,包括减肥,改善消化,增强免疫功能,皮肤健康以及降低许多疾病的风险[1,2]。益生菌是有益的细菌,食用后会带来健康益处。目前,益生菌通常被当作补充剂服用,用于促进健康的微生物和改善肠道健康。

本文我们主要针对益生菌及其功能做一个详细的介绍。

什么是益生菌?

益生菌是一种活的微生物(酵母或细菌),它有助于我们的健康[3]。当摄入适量的微生物时可提供健康益处。

益生菌哪儿来?

益生菌可以从补充剂以及细菌发酵制备的食物中获取。益生菌食品包括酸奶,开菲尔,酸菜,豆和泡菜。注意不要将益生菌与益生元混淆,益生元是膳食纤维,有助于喂养肠道内已经存在的有益菌[4]。

能有效降低胆固醇水平的特定细菌菌株包括嗜酸乳杆菌,长双歧杆菌和罗伊氏乳杆菌。

基于14项研究的分析发现,益生菌可导致LDL胆固醇平均下降,HDL小幅上升和甘油三酸酯下降[84]。

对LDL胆固醇的影响可能有几种过程,包括脂肪代谢的改变和肠道中胆固醇的吸收减少[85]。

另外益生菌也可以帮助降低血压。一项针对九组对照研究的评论发现,服用益生菌的人血压有一定程度的降低。但是,只有每天益生菌剂量超过100亿CFU的疗程超过8周才有显著效果[86]。

 增强免疫力 

服用益生菌可能有助于增强免疫系统,并降低感染和患病的风险。研究表明,服用益生菌补充剂可能会改变肠道细菌的平衡,从而增强人体抵抗过敏,感染和癌症的能力[87]。

特别值得注意的是:乳杆菌GG,卷曲乳杆菌,乳杆菌,两歧双歧杆菌和长双歧杆菌。这些细菌可以降低儿童呼吸道疾病和湿疹的风险,以及成年女性的尿路感染[88,89,90]。

此外,已显示益生菌可减少炎症。在一项研究中,老年人食用加氏乳杆菌,双歧双歧杆菌和长双歧杆菌的混合物或安慰剂,每次食用三周。

服用益生菌制剂后,炎性标志物减少,抗炎性标志物增加,肠道菌群平衡,肠道类型变得更像年轻,健康的人常见的类型[91]。

某些益生菌也可能有助于预防牙龈炎或牙龈感染一项为期14天的研究调查了在接受短乳杆菌或安慰剂治疗时,不刷牙和使用牙线的成年人。安慰剂组的牙龈炎发展更快,这表明益生菌有助于预防感染[92]。

降低某些过敏和湿疹的严重程度

某些益生菌菌株可以降低儿童和婴儿的湿疹严重程度。

一项研究发现,与未添加益生菌喂养的婴儿相比,添加了益生菌补充牛奶的婴儿的湿疹症状有所改善[93]。

另一项研究跟踪了在怀孕期间服用益生菌的妇女生下的孩子。这些孩子在出生后的头两年患湿疹的风险降低了83%[94]。

然而,益生菌与减少湿疹严重程度之间的联系仍然很薄弱,需要做更多的研究[95,96]。一些益生菌还可以减少牛奶或乳制品过敏者的炎症反应。但是,证据薄弱,需要进一步研究[97]。

 促进整体健康 

益生菌还有许多其他好处。

比如炎症:益生菌减少全身性炎症[98];

皮肤健康:有证据表明,益生菌可用于治疗痤疮,酒渣鼻和湿疹以及其他皮肤疾病[99]。

这只是益生菌带来益处的一小部分,因为正在进行的研究表明,其影响健康十分广泛。

除了针对特定的疾病和状况,您还可以服用益生菌以促进整体健康。

一项针对健康成年人的最新研究表明,服用双歧双歧杆菌4周有助于增加短链脂肪酸的产生[100]。

还有一些证据表明,益生菌可以通过延缓随着年龄增长发生的炎症带来的衰老[101,102]。

当然,重要的是要确保您摄取健康的饮食,并保持其他促进健康的行为。不能光指望益生菌保持健康。

此外,尽管益生菌对大多数人来说是安全的,但它们可能会对病情严重或免疫系统受损的人造成伤害[103]。

 安全和副作用 

益生菌通常具有良好的耐受性,并被认为对大多数人是安全的[104]。但是,在开始的几天里,可能会出现于消化有关的副作用,例如胀气和轻度的腹部不适[105]。

调整后,消化会开始逐渐改善。对于免疫系统受损的人,包括那些患有艾滋病毒,艾滋病和其他几种疾病的人,益生菌可能会导致危险的感染[106]。

对于部分特殊疾病的患者,请在服用益生菌补充剂之前咨询医生。

 结 语 

拥有健康的肠道微生物群对健康至关重要,定期检测肠道菌群,分析肠道菌群构成及有益菌的丰度,选择正确的益生菌可以帮助您解决特定的健康问题,并改善整体健康状况和生活品质。

当然,需要注意的是保持健康的肠道不仅仅需要服用益生菌,日常饮食和运动同样重要,因为许多生活方式和环境因素都会影响肠道细菌。

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